Cancer can affect a variety of organs in urology. Two of the most common include bladder and prostate cancer. The most common type of cancer in the USA may involve the entire urinary tract, from the urethra to the kidney. High-grade cancers can be invasive and quickly metastasize to nearby or distant organs. The most common presenting symptom is the presence of painless blood in the urine. Treatment options vary depending on the grade and extent of cancer growth. Many cases of bladder cancer are due to exposure to things such as smoking, dyes, paints, or solvents.
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer found in males. The symptoms are similar in presentation to benign prostatic hyperplasia and progress or resolution may be monitored with prostate-specific antigen levels. Common metastatic sites include the spine and bones. Treatment is usually tailored to the grade of cancer and extent of spread.
Testicular torsion is an acute and dramatically painful condition in urology. Strangulation of the gonadal blood supply due to twisting of the spermatic cord is extremely painful and can be very dangerous. Torsion often presents similarly to other conditions such as epididymitis, hydrocele, testicular tumor or scrotal edema. Treatment may involve manual unwinding of the twisted testicle, but this is often difficult due to extreme pain. Surgical exploration may be required in a majority of cases.
Urethritis is infection and καρκίνος προστάτη inflammation occurring anywhere along the urethral tract. It is a relatively common condition in urology and, while the cause may be post-traumatic or infectious, the term is used to describe acute inflammation caused by a sexually transmitted disease. Clinical findings correlating the symptoms to recent unprotected sexual encounters may help indicate the pathology. Symptoms of urethritis include burning during urination, itching, painful urination, yellow, green, or brown discharge, or a feeling of heaviness in the genitals of men. Treatment is tailored to the suspected cause and often involves a course of antibiotics. Common antibiotics include azithromycin, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, and doxycycline. Patients should be told to refrain from unprotected intercourse and educated about transmission routes and forms of protection.